Equinox Observations at Atlatl Rock

Valley of Fire State Park, NV, USA

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Resources and References

Note: as almost all links on the "Resources" page are external they are not marked specially.

    Links to Tools
    Websites about Archaeoastronomy, Rock Art, Atlatl Rock, and the Valley of Fire
    Links to Journals and Societies
    Books, Papers, Articles, and Videos
    Private Communication

    Links to Explanatory / Bonus Pages

  Links to Tools
( very good / often used)

|T02| U.S. Naval Observatory - Astronomical Applications Department
|T03| daylight saving time (U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO))
|T04| Altitude and Azimuth of the Sun (U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO))
|T05| Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day: Locations Worldwide (U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO))
|T06| Sun Plotter Applet
|T07| NOAA Solar Calculator   Sunrise, Sunset, Solar Noon and Solar Position for Any Place on Earth
Atlatl Rock coordinates: latitude 36.423019 deg  (N) ,   longitude -114.55051 deg  (W)
|T08| Julian Day Calculator (AAVSO)
|T09| Skycalc - Astronomy Tools
|T11| Physics and Astronomy   Java applets, programs and more (in German)
|T12| Solstices and Equinoxes: 2001 to 2050   (
|T13| Daylight Saving Time Changes for Las Vegas   (
|T14| Day of Year Calendar   (Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA))
|T15| Calendars and Calculators  (ESO)
|T16|   (Fred Espenak)
|T17| Common Holidays in Relation to Equinoxes, Solstices & Cross-Quarter Days   (Steven Gibson)
|T18| Equinox and Solstice Calculator   (
|T19|   (finds coordinates in Google Maps)
|T20|   (finds coordinates)
|T21| Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office   UK Hydrographic Office - similar tools as the USNO
|T22| Phases of the Moon   (
|T23| NASA Style Guide

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Websites about Archaeoastronomy, Rock Art, Atlatl Rock, and the Valley of Fire
( very good / often used)

|W01| Archaeoastronomy   in Wikipedia
|W02| Rock Art   in Wikipedia
|W03| Petroglyph   in Wikipedia
|W04| Equinox   in Wikipedia
|W05| Equation of time   (Wikipedia)
|W06| Valley of Fire State Park   (Wikipedia)
|W07| Valley of Fire State Park   (Nevada State Parks)
|W08| Rock Art Studies Bibliographic Database   (RASB @ Museum of Northern Arizona)
|W09| Petroglyphs at Altatl Rock, Valley of Fire, in Southern Nevada   (, Jim Boone)
|W10|   pictures taken in the Valley of Fire
|W11| Atlatl Rock   @ The Magalithic Portal (UK)   detail
|W12| Atlatl Rock Petroglyph   (Earth Science Picture of the Day)
|W13| Valley of Fire   by photographers Isabel and Steffen Synnatschke.
|W14| Atlatl Rock   search for pictures in Google
|W15| Atlatl   spear-thrower

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Links to Journals and Societies
( very good / often used)

|W21| American Rock Art Research Association   ARARA
|W22| Nevada Rock Art Foundation   NRAV
|W23| Society for Cultural Astronomy in the American Southwest
|W24| Journal for the History of Astronomy   SAGE Journals; unfortunately no free full access;
|W25| Center for Archaeoastronomy and ISAAC
|W26| International Society for Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture   ISAAC
|W27| Archaeology Southwest   mainly Arizona
|W28| Utah Rock Art Research Association   URARA
|W29| Verde Valley Archaeology Center   VVAC
|W30| Gesellschaft für Archäoastronomie   (Germany)

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Books, Papers, Articles, and Videos
( very good / often used)

|B01| Archeoastronomy in the New World
American Primitive Astronomy
Proceedings of an International Conference held at Oxford University, September 1981
Ed.: Aveni, A.F.
Cambridge University Press 1982 ; ISBN 0 521 24731 4
|B01a| Historical Astronomy: The Hopi Example
McCluskey, Stephen C.
in: |B01| p. 31 ff.
|B01b| Lunar Markings on Fajada Butte, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Sofaer, A., Sinclair, R.M., Doggett, L.E.
in: |B01| p. 169 ff.

|B02| Ancient Astronomers
Aveni, Anthony F.
Hardcover, 176 pages
Published December 31st 1993 by Smithsonian Books;
ISBN 10: 0895990377 / ISBN 13: 9780895990372

|B03| Echoes of the Ancient Skies
The Astronomy of lost Civilizations
Krupp, Dr. E.C.
New American Library; Meridian, 1984;
ISBN 10: 0452006791 / ISBN 13: 9780452006799

|B04| Astronomen, Priester, Pyramiden
Das Abenteuer Archäoastronomie
(In Search of Ancient Astronomies)
Ed.: Krupp, Edwin C.
München, Beck, 1980 ; ISBN 3406076017
|B04a| Ringe und Menhire
Geometrie und Astronomie in der Jungsteinzeit
A. Thom, A.S. Thom
in: |B04| p. 45 ff. , esp. 67,68 (megalithische Äquinoktien)

|B05| A Field Guide to Rock Art Symbols of the Greater Southwest
Patterson, Alex
Johnson Books: Boulder (May 1st 1992);
ISBN 10: 9781555660918 / ISBN 13: 978-1555660918

|B06| Sinagua Sunwatchers
An Archaeoastronomy Survey of the V Bar V Heritage Site and the Sacred Mountain Basin
Zoll, Kenneth J.
VVAC Press, Camp Verde; 3rd Edition (2013);
ISBN 10: 0982037805 / ISBN 13: 978-0982037805

|B07| Understanding The Rock Art Of Sedona and the Verde Valley
Zoll, Kenneth J.
VVAC Press, Camp Verde; 2nd Edition (2008);
ISBN 10: 0982037848 / ISBN 13: 978-0982037843

|B08| Heart of the Sky
Ancient Skywatchers of Central Arizona
Zoll, Kenneth J.
VVAC Press, Camp Verde; 2014;
ISBN 10: 098203783X / ISBN 13: 978-0982037836

|B09| The Petroglyph Calendar: An Archaeoastronomy Adventure
Sandia Mountains, Albuquqerque, NM
Allen, Hubert A.
Hubert Allen and Associates; 2nd edition 2001;
720-25 Tramway Lane NE, Albuquerque, NM 87122, U.S.A.
ISBN 10: 0-9641694-7-9

|B10| Anasazi of SW Utah - The Dance Of Light & Shadow
Urbaniak, Ray
Natural Frequency / Sanctuary House Press 2006;
Hurrycane, Utah, U.S.A.
ISBN 10: 0-9761737-1-9
(gift from Javier Benavides, September 2024)

|A01| Sonnwenden und Mondwenden     (in German)
Astronomische Grundlagen der Wenden von Sonne und Mond am Horizont und ihre Bedeutung in der Archäoastronomie
Burkhard Steinrücken
Vortrag auf der Tagung der Gesellschaft für Archäoastronomie vom 9.-12. März 2011 in Osnabrück

|A02| Chaco Canyon Astronomy  
El Palacio: Interview
Anna Sofaer
With Robert Wilder
Photography by Adriel Heisey

|P01| Valley of Fire Petroglyphs: A New Perspective on an Old Idea
Eric John Pacl, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Dissertation 2012

|P02| The Astronomical Context of the Archaeology and Architecture of the Chacoan Culture
Andrew M Munro, Centre for Astronomy, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences James Cook University
Dissertation 2011

|P03| Exploring Great Basin Archaeology with a focus on the rock art of southeastern Nevada  
Nevada Rock Art Foundation, 2015
NRAF -> publications

|P04| Ancient Cultural Landscapes of Lincoln County  
Nevada Rock Art Foundation, 2018
NRAF -> publications

|P05| Archaeoastronomy in the Filed; Methodologies applied in Chaco Canyon
Kim Malville, Andy Munro

|P06| The Enigmas of Fajada Butte, Chaco Canyon
Kim Malville

|P07| The Hohokam of Southwest North America
James M. Bayman

|V01| Prehistoric Astronomy of Central Arizona @ YouTube Video
Ken Zoll
Museum of Northern Arizona, 2010 Avocational Archaeology Symposium Vol. 5
October 9, 2010

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Private Communication

|C01| Walton, James
emails dated 2010, March 18, 24, 29

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Links to Explanatory / Bonus Pages

|X01| Slope Change - the Reason for the Downward Movement of the Shadow Before Noon
|X02| Atlatl Rock Pictures found in the Internet (up to 2015)
not available on the public pages due to possible copyright conflicts - you may request the URL to view them.

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by Helmut Steinle